Growing up in rural areas leads to a lower earnings 'pay penalty', research says
People who grow up in rural areas earn less than their urban equivalents even after they move to towns and cities for work, research says.
In the first analysis of its kind, Dr Martin Culliney found that they suffered a "pay penalty into adulthood". Dr Culliney, of Sheffield Hallam University, studied survey results on the income of 1,594 people tracked from 1991 to 2009. They were aged 15-24 at the beginning of the period and up to 42 at the end.